Tag Archive | amino acids

Tyrosine

Written by Vitaminstuff :

Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid that helps regulate mood and stimulates the nervous system. It can also help speed up the metabolism and treat conditions characterized by chronic fatigue.
The body needs adequate supplies of tyrosine to make many important brain chemicals that help regulate appetite, pain sensitivity, and the body’s response to stress. It is also needed for normal functioning of the thyroid, pituitary, and adrenal glands—low levels of tyrosine may lead to hypothyroidism, low blood pressure, chronic fatigue, and sluggish metabolism.
The body needs both tyrosine and the essential amino phenylalanine to make epinephrine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, three neurotransmitters that basically control the way you perceive and interact with your environment. Without adequate amounts of phenylalanine, the body can’t manufacture its own supply of tyrosine; without adequate amounts of tyrosine, the body cannot metabolize phenylalanine. A shortage of either of these amino acids could leave you vulnerable to a host of mental disorders, including anxiety, depression, low libido, and chronic fatigue. Tyrosine supplements, especially when combined with 5-HTP (5-hydroxy-tryptophan) supplements, have been used successfully to treat depression. Tyrosine supplementation has also been used for treatment of allergies, headaches, Parkinson’s disease, and drug withdrawal.
Although your body manufactures tyrosine from phenylalanine, you can also get phenylalanine from certain foods, including almonds, avocados, bananas, dairy foods, beans, and seeds. There are some people, however, that have a condition that makes it impossible for them to convert phenylalanine into tyrosine, which is called phenylketonuria (PKU). For these people tyrosine is an essential acid, and supplementation is necessary. Tyrosine is available in powder and capsules, and is best taken at bedtime so that it does not compete for absorption with other amino acids.

Anyone with high blood pressure or migraines should not take tyrosine or even eat foods high in this amino acid, as it may aggravate their condition. Anyone taking monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors should not take tyrosine or phenylalanine supplements or even eat foods that contain significant amounts of these amino acids—both have been shown to cause dangerous spikes in blood pressure when combined with these medications.

The complete list with all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

https://alleswatis.wordpress.com/2013/11/21/a-series-about-supplementation/

This amino acid is the last one of the above list .

 

 

Tryptophan

Written by Vitaminstuff :

Tryptophan is one of the 10 essential amino acids that the body uses to synthesize the proteins it needs. It’s well-known for its role in the production of nervous system messengers, especially those related to relaxation, restfulness, and sleep.

Tryptophan has two important functions. First, a small amount of the tryptophan we get in our diet (about 3%) is converted into niacin (vitamin B3) by the liver. This conversion can help prevent the symptoms associated with niacin deficiency when dietary intake of this vitamin is low.

Second, tryptophan serves as a precursor for serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps the body regulate appetite, sleep patterns, and mood. Because of its ability to raise serotonin levels, tryptophan has been used therapeutically in the treatment of a variety of conditions, most notably insomnia, depression, and anxiety.

As an essential amino acid, dietary deficiency of tryptophan may cause the symptoms characteristic of protein deficiency, which include weight loss and impaired growth in infants and children.

When accompanied by dietary niacin deficiency, lack of tryptophan in the diet may also cause pellagra, the classic niacin deficiency disease that is characterized by the “4 Ds” – dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death. This condition is very rare in the United States, however, and cannot occur simply because of a tryptophan deficiency.

Dietary deficiency of tryptophan may lead to low levels of serotonin. Low serotonin levels are associated with depression, anxiety, irritability, impatience, impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, weight gain, overeating, carbohydrate cravings, poor dream recall, and insomnia.

High dietary intake of tryptophan from food sources is not known to cause any symptoms of toxicity. In addition, tryptophan has been given therapeutically, as a prescription medicine or dietary supplement, in doses exceeding five grams per day with no report of adverse effects.

However, in 1989, the use of dietary supplements containing tryptophan was blamed for the development of a serious condition called eosiniphilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS), which caused severe muscle and joint pain, high fever, weakness, swelling of the arms and legs, and shortness of breath in more than a thousand people. In addition, more than 30 deaths were attributed to EMS caused by tryptophan supplements.

Many experts believe that the EMS was caused by a contaminant that was found in one batch of tryptophan sold by one manufacturer and occurred in only a small number of susceptible individuals. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration, the agency responsible for overseeing the dietary supplement industry, remained convinced that high doses of tryptophan were categorically unsafe. Since 1989, tryptophan has not been available as a dietary supplement in the United States.

To date, a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (TUL) for tryptophan has not yet been established by the Institute of Medicine at the National Academy of Sciences.

Vitamin B6 is necessary for the conversion of tryptophan to both niacin and serotonin. Consequently, a dietary deficiency of vitamin B6 may result in low serotonin levels and/or impaired conversion of tryptophan to niacin.

In addition, several dietary, lifestyle, and health factors reduce the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin, including cigarette smoking, high sugar intake, alcohol abuse, excessive consumption of protein, hypoglycemia and diabetes.

People taking the anti-depressant medications known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (including Prozac, Paxil, and Zoloft) should consult a physician before taking any other supplement or medication that also increases the amount of, or the effect of, serotonin, in the body.

Vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid and magnesium are necessary for the metabolization of tryptophan. In addition, tyrosine and phenylalanine compete with tryptophan for absorption.

Because of this, some healthcare practitioners believe that food sources of tryptophan do not cause a significant enough increase in blood levels of tryptophan to produce therapeutic results, and that tryptophan must, therefore, be taken as a supplement to increase its blood levels.

Until 1989, tryptophan supplementation was standard practice in many countries around the world – including the United States – to treat insomnia, depression, and anxiety.

In the summer and fall of 1989, hundreds of people taking tryptophan supplements in the U.S. began to report the development of serious side effects including muscle and joint pain, high fever, weakness, swelling of the arms and legs, and shortness of breath, a constellation of symptoms that later became known as eosiniphilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS).

Upon investigation, it was discovered that nearly all of the cases of EMS could be traced back to a contaminant found in one batch of tryptophan produced by a Japanese manufacturer called Showa Denko K.K.

While all manufacturers of supplemental tryptophan synthesized this amino acid through a fermentation process using bacteria, several months before the outbreak of EMS, Showa Denko K.K. had altered its process to make it more efficient and was apparently unaware that a toxic contaminant was being produced.

The United States Food and Drug Administration took immediate steps to limit the availability of tryptophan, and since 1989 this amino acid has not been sold as a dietary supplement. Tryptophan is still available, however, for use in the manufacture of infant formulas and entereral and parenteral (intravenous) nutritional supplements prescribed by physicians.

A few years ago, a new tryptophan-like supplement emerged in the U.S. marketplace. This supplement is called 5-hydroxytryptophan or 5-HTP. 5-HTP has been used in much the same way as tryptophan for the treatment of depression and insomnia, and for weight loss.

The reason is simple: the body ordinarily takes tryptophan and converts it into 5-HTP, and then takes the 5-HTP and converts it into serotonin. By taking 5-HTP, a person is taking a compound that is actually one step closer to serotonin than tryptophan.

Tryptophan occurs naturally in nearly all foods that contain protein, but in small amounts compared to the other essential amino acids. The following foods contain tryptophan: red meat, dairy products, nuts, seeds, bananas, soybeans and soy products, tuna, shellfish, and turkey.

The complete list with all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

https://alleswatis.wordpress.com/2013/11/21/a-series-about-supplementation/

Threonine

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Threonine is an essential amino acid that promotes normal growth by helping to maintain the proper protein balance in the body. Threonine also supports cardiovascular, liver, central nervous, and immune system function.

Threonine is needed to create glycine and serine, two amino acids that are necessary for the production of collagen, elastin, and muscle tissue. Threonine helps keep connective tissues and muscles throughout the body strong and elastic, including the heart, where it is found in significant amounts. It also helps build strong bones and tooth enamel, and may speed wound healing or recovery from injury.

Threonine combines with the amino acids aspartic acid and methione to help the liver with lipotropic function, or the digestion of fats and fatty acids. Without enough threonine in the body, fats could build up in the liver and ultimately cause liver failure.

Threonine supports the immune system by aiding in the production of antibodies, and because it is found largely in the central nervous system, may be helpful in treating some types of depression. Threonine supplementation may also be useful for treatment of Lou Gherigs Disease, also known as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), because it increases glycine levels in the central nervous system (administering glycine is ineffective, since it cannot cross into the central nervous system). Research indicates that symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), another disease that affects the nerve and muscle function, may be lessened with threonine supplementation. One 1992 study showed that 7.5 grams of threonine taken daily decreased spastcity among study participants.

Threonine is an essential amino acid, which means it must be obtained from dietary sources. Dairy foods, meat, grains, mushrooms, and leafy vegetables all contain threonine, so threonine deficiency is not likely if you have a balanced diet. However, strict vegetarians or vegans may want to consider threonine supplementation, since meat is by far the more superior source of this amino acid—the threonine content of grains is very low. Symptoms of threonine deficiency include emotional agitation, confusion, digestion difficulties and fatty liver. Threonine is available in protein supplements such as protein powder/bars and amino acid tablets. The standard dose is between 103 and 500 milligrams per day. Exceeding the recommended doses of threonine can disrupt liver function, and cause the formation of too much urea, and consequently ammonia toxicity, in your body.

The complete list with all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

https://alleswatis.wordpress.com/2013/11/21/a-series-about-supplementation/

Theanine

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Theanine (gamma-glutamylethylamide, or 5-N-ethyl-glutamine) is a glutamic acid analog or amino acid derivative commonly found in tea (infusions of Camellia sinensis), and also in the basidiomycete mushroom Boletus badius. In 1950 the Tea laboratory of Kyoto successfully separated theanine from Gyokuro leaf, which has the highest theanine content among all teas. Theanine is an analog to glutamine and glutamate, and can cross the blood-brain barrier.

Able to cross the blood-brain barrier, theanine has psychoactive properties. Theanine has been shown to reduce mental and physical stress, and improves cognition and mood in a synergistic manner with caffeine.

While structurally related to the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, theanine only has weak affinity for the glutamate receptor on post-synaptic cells. Rather, its primary effect seems to increase the overall level of the brain inhibitory transmitter GABA. Theanine also increases brain dopamine levels and has micromolar affinities for AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptors. Its effect on serotonin is still a matter of debate in the scientific community, with studies showing increases and decreases in brain serotonin levels using similar experimental protocols. It has also been found that injecting spontaneously hypertensive mice with theanine significantly lowered levels of 5-hydroxyindoles in the brain. Researchers also speculate that it may inhibit glutamic acid excitotoxicity. Theanine also promotes alpha wave production in the brain.

Studies on test rats have shown that even repeated, extremely high doses of theanine cause little to no harmful psychological or physical effects. Theanine showed neuroprotective effects in one rat study. Several beverage manufacturers are selling drinks containing theanine and are marketing them as drinks that help people focus and concentrate, while other manufacturers claim relaxing and tranquillizing properties.

L-Theanine may help the body’s immune response to infection by boosting the disease-fighting capacity of gamma delta T cells. The study, published in 2003 by the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, included a four-week trial with 11 coffee drinkers and 10 tea drinkers, who consumed 600 milliliters of coffee or black tea daily. Blood sample analysis found that the production of anti-bacterial proteins was up to five times higher in the tea-drinkers, an indicator of a stronger immune response.

The complete list with all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

https://alleswatis.wordpress.com/2013/11/21/a-series-about-supplementation/

Taurine

Written by Vitaminstuff :

Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is manufactured in the body from the aminos methionine and cysteine. It helps regulate the nervous system and the muscles, and plays an important part in keeping the brain and heart healthy.
Taurine helps move potassium, magnesium, and sodium, three nutrients that are key to brain and heart function, into the cell membranes. Taurine is known to provide support for neurotransmitters and to have a protective effect on the brain. Some studies have shown that taking L-taurine supplements can help strengthen the heart muscles, and thus regulate blood pressure and prevent heart failure and arrhythmias.
Because taurine plays such an important role in muscle maintenance, it is thought that taurine supplementation may be beneficial to body builders. One study showed that a taurine deficiency leads to a decrease in nitric oxide production, which in turn causes a decrease in blood (and oxygen) flow to the muscles. People that interested in bodybuilding may want to take taurine supplements, although many supplements and protein drinks aimed at serious body builders already contain this substance.
Taurine is also important to the body’s metabolism of fats. It is a key component of bile, and is needed to help absorb fat-soluble vitamins and regulate serum cholesterol levels, and at least one study has linked taurine to the regulation of insulin in the body as well. Taurine seems to offer the body some antioxidant protection–studies have shown that it protects the eyes by reducing the oxidative damage caused by sunlight, and stimulates the body’s immune system. Taurine has also been suggested as a potential treatment for epilepsy, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, alcoholism, cystic fibrosis, and Alzheimer’s.
Taurine is found in eggs, fish, meat, and milk. There are no official Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for taurine. Adults are able to manufacture taurine in the body, but newborns can’t make it themselves, and have to get it from outside sources—if you are feeding your infant formula, make sure it is fortified with L-taurine.
Taurine comes in a liquid form for better absorption, and is also available in capsules. There have been no toxic side effects reported so far, although some studies have shown that taurine may have a depressing effect on your nervous system.

The complete list with all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

https://alleswatis.wordpress.com/2013/11/21/a-series-about-supplementation/

Serine

Written by Vitaminstuff :

Serine is a non-essential amino acid derived from the amino acid glycine . It is important to overall good health, both physical and mental. Serine is especially important to proper functioning of the brain and central nervous system.
Serine helps form the phospholipids needed to make every cell in your body. It is also involved in the function of RNA and DNA, fat and fatty acid metabolism, muscle formation, and the maintenance of a healthy immune system. The proteins used to form the brain, as well as the protective myelin sheaths that cover the nerves, contain serine. Without serine, the myelin sheaths could fray and become less efficient at delivering messages between the brain and nerve endings in the body, essentially short circuiting mental function.
Serine is also needed to produce tryptophan, an amino acid that is used to make serotonin, a mood-determining brain chemical. Both serotonin and tryptophan shortages have been linked to depression, insomnia, confusion, and anxiety. Research suggests that low levels of serine may contribute to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM).
Serine helps produce immunoglobulins and antibodies for a strong immune system, and also aids in the absorption of creatine, a substance made from amino acids that helps build and maintain all the muscles in the body, including the heart.

In order for serine to be manufactured in the body, sufficient amounts of vitamin B3 and vitamin B6, and folic acid must be present. Meat and soy foods, dairy products, wheat gluten, and peanuts are all good natural sources of serine, but today’s Western diet includes so much processed convenience food—amino acid supplementation may be needed more often than most people realize.
Serine supplementation is available in capsule, tablet, and powder forms. It can be purchased as a stand-alone supplement or, more commonly, in combination amino acid supplements and sports drinks. Serine is a constituent of phospholipids, which help seal in moisture, so it is also often included as a natural moisturizing agent in many cosmetics and skin care preparations.

 

The complete list with all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

https://alleswatis.wordpress.com/2013/11/21/a-series-about-supplementation/

 

Proline

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Proline is an amino acid needed for the production of collagen and cartilage. It keeps muscles and joints flexible and helps reduce sagging and wrinkling that accompany UV exposure and normal aging of the skin.
Proline helps the body break down proteins for use in creating healthy cells in the body. It is absolutely essential to the development and maintenance of healthy skin and connective tissues, especially at the site of traumatic tissue injury. Proline and lysine (another one of the amino acids that is important to protein synthesis) are both needed to make hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, two amino acids that form collagen. Collagen helps to heal cartilage and to cushion the joints and vertebrae. For this reason, proline supplementation may prove beneficial for treatment of conditions such as osteoarthritis, persistent soft tissue strains, and chronic back pain.
The body needs proline to maintain muscle tissue as well. Decreases in proline levels have been noted in prolonged endurance runners and others following prolonged exercise. Proline is a nonessential amino acid. The body makes proline from glutamic acid, and deficiency is rare in healthy individuals with a healthy diet. However, people recovering from traumatic injury, particularly skin injuries such as severe burns, may want to supplement this amino acid. People with pain caused by insufficient cartilage or collagen formation could benefit from extra proline in their diet as well.

Meat, dairy, and eggs are the best natural sources of proline; vegetarians or those with a low-protein diet should seriously consider a combination amino acid supplement containing, among other amino acids, proline. Proline supplements are available in stand-alone capsules and tablets, but this amino acid is also often included in supplements marketed for treatment of specific conditions, such as herpes (in combination with lysine), arthritis, or back pain, or in supplements or sports drinks marketed for body builders and athletes. Proline may be in supplements used to promote cardiovascular health, usually in combination with vitamin C.
The recommended therapeutic dose is between 500 milligrams and 1,000 milligrams daily, in combination with vitamin C. People with liver or kidney disease should not take this or any other amino acid supplement without first consulting their physician. Getting too much of any one amino acid can throw the citric acid cycle out of balance, which makes the liver and kidneys work harder to eliminate toxins.

The complete list with all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

https://alleswatis.wordpress.com/2013/11/21/a-series-about-supplementation/

 

Where Do You Get Your Protein?

The protein topic is the most talked about subject in modern nutrition. Doctors and dietitians warn you about getting enough of it. Friends and family scare you by claiming you’ll wither away and die without it [because vegan diets obviously contain none of it! **Sarcasm**]. And the food industry slaps the protein label on the front of almost everything they make so they can sell more of their mostly worthless food products.

So what’s all the fuss about? Is protein some sort of miracle nutrient that keeps the human race from going extinct? Will humans just disappear, vanishing into thin air, if supermarkets fail to stock meat and dairy? More importantly, how does one get protein on a plant-based diet? And how much is enough?

Read the entire article by Dustin Rudolph , together with all the 35 links on :

http://www.plantbasedpharmacist.com/2013/12/35-ways-to-counter-vegan-protein.html

Phenylalaline

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Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid that is needed for normal functioning of the central nervous system. It has been used successfully to help control symptoms of depression and chronic pain, as well as other diseases linked to a malfunctioning central nervous system.
Phenylalanine is especially effective for treating brain disorders because it is able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is a protective barrier formed by the red blood cells and the glia of the brain that protects the brain from any toxins, bacteria, and viruses, etc., that are circulating through the bloodstream. Only chemicals that are able to cross this barrier can directly affect brain function.
The body needs phenylalanine to make epinephrine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, three neurotransmitters that basically control the way you perceive and interact with your environment. Phenylalanine supplementation may help you feel happier, less hungry and more alert; it has also to treat chronic pain and improve memory and concentration. Recent research indicates that phenylalanine, which aids in melatonin production, may be effective for treatment of vitiligo, a condition that causes white patches on the skin. Subjects treated by these researchers took 50 to 100 milligrams oral L-phenylalanine and applied topical 10 percent phenylalanine gel each day and reported an average improvement rate of 83 percent.
There are three different kinds of phenylalanine: L-phenylalanine, D-phenylalanine, and DL-phenylalanine. Each type of phenylalanine is used to treat different symptoms. D-phenylalanine is more effective for controlling pain, while L-phenylalanine is more effective for regulating mood, appetite, and mental alertness; DL-phenylalanine affects both pain sensitivity and mental state.
Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid, which means it must be obtained from dietary sources. People that suffer from arthritis, obesity, severe menstrual cramps or mild depression may want to speak to their doctor about trying phenylalanine supplementation. Phenylalanine supplements come in capsule, tablet, and powder form. Phenylalanine has also been used to treat Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia, but anyone with a serious health condition should not take any form of supplementation without first consulting their physician about proper dosage and possible side effects.
Anyone with high blood pressure or migraines should not take phenylalanine or even eat foods high in this amino acid, as it may aggravate their condition. People with a condition known as phenylketonuria (PKU), in which phenylalanine cannot be broken down, should not take phenylalanine supplements or eat foods containing large amounts of this amino acid. Do not take phenylalanine supplements in conjunction with prescription antidepressants, particularly monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, as this may lead to life-threatening spikes in blood pressure. Large doses of phenylalanine may cause nerve damage.

The complete list of all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

https://alleswatis.wordpress.com/2013/11/21/a-series-about-supplementation/

Ornithine

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Ornithine is a non-essential amino acid derived from the breakdown of arginine during the citric acid cycle. It helps build muscle and reduce body fat, especially when combined with the amino acids arginine and carnitine. Ornithineis also needed for the formation of citrulline, proline, and glutamic acid, three amino acids that help supply energy to every cell in the body.
Ornithine may also help combat the muscle loss that is a normal part of the aging process. As the body ages, it is less efficient at synthesizing proteins and can’t regenerate muscle tissue as quickly—strength and muscularity begin to decline. By helping to elevate growth hormone levels, ornithine may help speed the production of muscle tissue and offset the effects of aging. Although both arginine and ornithine help protect and build muscle mass, ornithine is generally thought to be twice as effective at stimulating growth hormone production as arginine, so a combination supplement is not necessary if you wish to use ornithine for this purpose.

 

Ornithine helps remove toxic ammonia from the liver, and may reduce the effects of cirrhosis of the liver and disorders associated with liver malfunction. In one study, participants taking 18 grams of ornithine aspartate for two weeks showed significant improvement in blood tests and liver function compared to the placebo group. Research has also shown that ornithine helps promote healing and tissue repair. Clinical studies reported that taking 10 grams of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) each day helped reduce the length of hospital stays for those recovering from surgery, generalized infections, cancer, trauma, and burns.
Ornithine is a nonessential amino acid, which means the body is able to produce its own supply. You can also get ornithine from your diet; meat, fish, dairy products, and eggs are also good sources of this nutrient. Few people are really deficient in ornithine, unless they are extremely malnourished or have a disorder that disrupts the citric acid cycle; however, if you wish to try ornithine supplementation for the purpose of increasing your body’s muscle content, or to fight the effects of aging, you can purchase supplemental ornithine capsules or powders at your local health food store and, in many cases, your local pharmacy. No side effects have been reported with the use of ornithine, although gastrointestinal distress may develop with intakes over 10 grams per day.

 

The complete list with all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

https://alleswatis.wordpress.com/2013/11/21/a-series-about-supplementation/