Tag Archive | amino acids

Methionine

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Methionine is an essential amino acid that helps the body process and eliminate fat. It contains sulfur, a substance that is required for the production of the body’s most abundant natural antioxidant, glutathione. The body also needs plenty of methionineto produce two other sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and taurine, which help the body eliminate toxins, build strong, healthy tissues, and promote cardiovascular health.
Methionine is a lipotropic, or a chemical substance that helps the liver process fats (lipids). Other lipotropics include choline, inositol, and betaine (trimethylglycine), all of which help prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver and thus ensure normal liver function, which is essential for the elimination of toxins from the body. Methionine also supports liver function by regulating glutathione supplies; glutathione is needed to help neutralize toxins in the liver.
Methionine is needed to make creatine, a nutrient naturally found primarily in muscle tissue that provides the energy our muscles need to move, and has been found to boost athletic performance during short, intense workouts. Creatine is necessary for all muscular function, and thus supports normal functioning of the heart and circulatory system.
Methionine is essential for the formation of healthy collagen used to form skin, nails, and connective tissue, and helps reduce the level of inflammatory histamines in the body. People with conditions linked to excessive histamine production, such as arthritis and chronic allergies, may benefit from methionine supplementation.
Preliminary research indicates that methionine may also help treat symptoms of pancreatitis and Parkinsons disease. It has also been found to be helpful for treatment of urinary tract infections; like cranberry, methionine helps prevent bacteria from sticking to and proliferating in the walls of the urinary tract.
Recently a form of methionine supplement called SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine) has become available. Research has shown that SAMe is effective for treatment of arthritis and some forms of depression. The average dose is 400 milligrams three times daily, and it works best when taken with a B-complex vitamin. You can also obtain SAMe at any local pharmacy or health food store.
Methionine is an essential vitamin, which means it must be obtained through dietary sources. It is found in a variety of natural food sources, including beans, eggs, fish, garlic, lentils, meat, onions, soybeans, seeds, and yogurt. It is also available at health food stores and from online distributors in capsule and powder forms.
Average-size adults require approximately 800 to 1,000 milligrams of methionine per day. It is important to note that excessive methionine intake, together with inadequate intake of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, can increase the conversion of methionine to homocysteine—a substance linked to cardiovascular disease. However, supplementation of up to 2 grams of methionine daily for long periods of time has not been reported to cause any serious side effects.

 

The complete list of all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

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Lysine

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Lysine is an essential amino acid that is well known for its antiviral properties. It helps prevent outbreaks of herpes and cold sores, and is needed for hormone production and the growth and maintenance of bones in both children and adults.

Lysine is involved in the production off antibodies for a strong, healthy immune system, which may be part of the reason it is so effective at fighting herpes viruses. Lysine also helps prevent the body’s absorption of the amino acid arginine, which the herpes virus must have in order to replicate. Studies have shown that taking supplemental L-lysine in combination with vitamin C and flavonoids can effectively fight and/or prevent herpes outbreaks. Results of a six-month trial involving more than 50 people indicate that lysine is far more effective than a placebo in preventing cold sores. Lysine supplements have also been used to prevent eruptions of shingles, a blistering condition that is caused by the herpes varicella-zoster. Lysine also helps herpes and cold sores heal more quickly. This amino acid promotes the formation of both collagen and muscle protein, and may help speed recovery from surgery and sports injuries as well.

Lysine is one of the essential amino acids, which means it cannot be manufactured in the body and must be obtained from dietary sources. Good sources of lysine include cheese, eggs, fish, lima beans, milk, potatoes, red meat, soy products, and yeast.

Most people get enough lysine from their diet, but there have been recorded cases of lysine deficiency, particularly in those that have a low-protein diet or eating disorder. A lysine deficiency may include symptoms of bloodshot eyes, hair loss, an inability to concentrate, irritability, lack of energy, poor appetite, reproductive disorders, retarded growth, and weight loss.

People suffering from conditions caused by any form of herpes virus may benefit greatly from lysine supplementation, but should first consult their healthcare professional.

Lysine supplements are available in stand-alone supplements or in combination supplements, particularly those marketed for treatment of herpes outbreaks. It comes in tablet, capsule, powder, and liquid forms. The usual dose is 500 to 1000 milligrams each day in capsules, Doses of more than 10 grams each day may cause stomach cramps or diarrhea. In very large doses (10 to 30 grams a day), lysine increases the toxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as gentamicin, neomycin, and streptomycin.

The complete list of all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

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Isoleucine

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Isoleucine is an amino acid that is best known for its ability to increase endurance and help heal and repair muscle tissue and encourage clotting at the site of injury. This amino acid is especially important to serious athletes and body builders because its primary function in the body is to boost energy and help the body recover from strenuous physical activity.
Isoleucine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA). There are three branched-chain amino acids in the body, isoleucine, valine, and leucine, and all of them help promote muscle recovery after exercise. Isoleucine is actually broken down for energy within the muscle tissue. Is also keeps energy levels stable by helping to regulate blood sugar; a deficiency of isoleucine produces symptoms similar to those of hypoglycemia, and may include headaches, dizziness, fatigue, depression, confusion, and irritability.
Isoleucine is an essential acid, which means that it cannot be manufactured in the body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Good sources of isoleucine include high-protein foods, such as nuts, seeds, meat, eggs, fish, lentils, peas, and soy protein. People that exercise a lot or that have a low-protein diet should consider supplementation. Isoleucine is also available in stand-alone supplemental form, but should always be taken together with the other two branched-chain amino acids, leucine and valine. The ideal balance is 2 milligrams of leucine and valine for each 1 milligram of isoleucine. Combination supplements that provide all three of the BCAAs may be more convenient.
People with impaired liver or kidney function should not take isoleucine without first consulting a physician, as large doses of amino acids may aggravate these conditions.

 

The complete list of all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

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Histidine

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Histidine is an amino acid that is used to develop and maintain healthy tissues in all parts of the body, particularly the myelin sheaths that coat nerve cells and ensure the transmission of messages from the brain to various parts of the body. It may be useful for treatment of mental disorders as well as certain types of sexual dysfunction.
Histidine levels in the body must be balanced to ensure good mental and physical health. High levels of this amino acid have been linked to the presence of psychological disorders such as anxiety and schizophrenia, while low levels of histidine are thought contribute to the development of rheumatoid arthritis and the type of deafness that results from nerve damage. Taking histidine supplements may help relieve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
Histidine is important to normal sexual functioning, because it gets converted into histamine, a chemical needed to stimulate sexual arousal. Histamine is also needed to help the immune system know when the body is experiencing an allergic reaction, and for the production of gastric juices needed for normal digestion.
Research suggests that hsitidine also acts as a natural detoxifier, protecting against radiation damage, and removing heavy metals from the system. It may even help prevent the onset of AIDS—histidine is crucial to the production of both red and white blood cells.
Like other amino acids, histidine is found in many high-protein foods, such as meat and dairy products, as well as grains such as rice, wheat, and rye. It is not certain if histidine is an essential or non-essential amino acid—most health experts agree that, although the body manufactures its own histidine, it is fairly easy for natural supplies to run short. The chronically ill, post-surgery, or arthritic individual may wish to consider supplementation with this amino acid. Histidine is available in both capsule and powder forms, as well as in combination amino acid formulas.
Because it has a proven effect on the central nervous system and histamine production, people with manic (bipolar) depression should not take supplemental histidine without first consulting their physician. Anyone with liver or kidney disorders should not take histidine without first consulting with a licensed health care provider. Taking any one amino acid supplement may cause levels of nitrogen in the body to become imbalanced, as well as disrupt the Krebs cycle by which toxins are eliminated from the liver and kidneys.

 

The complete list of all amino acids ( with all links ) is on :

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Glycine

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Glycine is one of the non-essential amino acids and is used to help create muscle tissue and convert glucose into energy. It is also essential to maintaining healthy central nervous and digestive systems, and has recently been shown to provide protection via antioxidants from some types of cancer.
Glycine is used in the body to help construct normal DNA and RNA strands—the genetic material needed for proper cellular function and formation. It helps prevent the breakdown of muscle by boosting the body’s levels of creatine , a compound that helps build muscle mass. High concentrations of glycine are found not only in the muscles, but in the skin and other connective tissues as well. Almost 1/3 of collagen, which keeps the skin and connective tissue firm and flexible, is composed of glycine. (High amounts of Glycine are also found in gelatin, which is a form of denatured collagen). Without glycine the body would not be able to repair damaged tissues; the skin would become slack as it succumbed to UV rays, oxidation, and free radical damage, and wounds would never heal.
Glycine is considered a glucogenic amino acid, which means it helps supply the body with glucose needed for energy. It helps regulate blood sugar levels, and thus glycine supplementation may be useful for treating symptoms characterized by low energy and fatigue, such as hypoglycemia, anemia, and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS).
Glycine is essential for a healthy, normally functioning digestive system. It helps regulate the synthesis of the bile acid used to digest fats, and is included in many commercial gastric antacid agents.
Glycine is necessary for central nervous system function. Research has shown that this amino acid can help inhibit the neurotransmitters that cause seizure activity, hyperactivity, and manic (bipolar) depression. Glycine can also be converted to another neurotransmitter, serine, as needed, and may be beneficial in the management of schizophrenia. In one study, twenty-two schizophrenic patients, who did not initially respond to traditional treatments, added glycine to their ongoing antipsychotic medication and found that it significantly reduced their symptoms. Glycine intake among the participants ranged from 40 to 90 grams daily (0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight). More research concerning the effects of glycine on schizophrenia is underway. Studies have shown that glycine also helps improve memory retrieval loss in those that suffer from a wide variety of sleep-depriving conditions, including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, jet lag, and overwork.
Results from preliminary studies of glycine as a potential treatment for cancer have been promising, and suggest that it may help prevent the development of cancerous tumors and melanoma. In laboratory mice, dietary glycine prevented tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenisis, the process by which tumors develop their own blood supply. Glycine also seems to play a role in keeping the prostate healthy. In one study, glycine was shown to help reduce the symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia in men.
High-protein foods, such as fish, meat, beans, milk, and cheese, are the best dietary sources of glycine. Glycine is also available in capsule and powder forms, and as part of many combination amino acid supplements. There have been no toxic effects associated with glycine, although some people have reported that taking this supplement causes stomach upset.
Individuals with kidney or liver disease should not consume glycine without consulting their doctor. Taking any one amino acid supplement can cause a disruption of the citric acid or Krebs cycle, and cause a build-up of nitrogen or ammonia in the body, which makes the liver and kidneys work harder to remove waste. Anyone taking antispastic drugs should consult a physician before supplementing with glycine, since it theoretically could increase the effects of these medications.

The complete list of amino acids is on :
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Glutathione peroxidase

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Glutathione peroxidase (GSH) is your body’s most abundant natural antioxidant. GSH protects your vision, boosts your immune system, helps turn carbohydrates into energy, and prevents the buildup of oxidized fats that may contribute to atherosclerosis.
Glutathione is a compound classified as a tripeptide made of three amino acids: cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. Glutathione is also found in every part of the body, especially the lungs, intestinal tract, and liver. The body produces and stores the largest amounts of GSH in the liver, where it is used to detoxify harmful compounds so that they can be removed from the body through the bile. The liver also supplies GSH directly to red and white blood cells in the bloodstream; it helps keep red blood and white blood cells healthy to maximize the disease-fighting power of the immune system. Glutathione also appears to have an anti-aging affect on the body. GSH levels decline with age, and a lack of glutathione has been shown to leave the body more vulnerable to damage by free radicals, thus speeding up oxidation (wearing down) of the body.
A glutathione deficiency can have a devastating effect on the nervous system, causing such symptoms as lack of balance and coordination, mental disorders, and tremors. Any illness (even a bad cold), chronic disorders such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis, injury, or heavy exposure to pollutants can cause a GSH deficiency. This is because your body uses more GSH when it is supporting white blood cells and ridding the body of toxins.
Glutathione is found in almost all fruits and vegetables. Acorn squash, asparagus, avocado, cantaloupe, grapefruit, okra, orange, peach, potato, spinach, strawberries, tomato, watermelon, and zucchini are all good sources of GSH. Some vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale, and parsley, not only provide GSH, but also actually stimulate the body produce more of this powerful antioxidant. Cooking destroys a lot of the glutathione in fresh fruits and vegetables, so you can get the most GSH from these foods by eating them raw or steamed. Eating foods high in glutamine, such as lean meats, eggs, wheat germ, and whole grains, can also stimulate the liver to produce more GSH.
There is no Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for GSH, but supplements have no known harmful side effects. Glutathione supplements can be expensive, but there is some question about the body’s ability to absorb GSH efficiently in supplemental form. If you want to take GSH supplements, just make sure to take them with meals to maximize absorption.

 

The complete list of amino acids is on :
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Glutamine

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Glutamine is an amino acid that helps build and maintain the muscles of the body. It also helps remove toxic ammonia from the liver and helps maintain a healthy central nervous system.
Glutamine easily passes through the blood-brain barrier, a protective barrier formed by the red blood cells and the glia of the brain that protects the brain from any toxins, bacteria, and viruses, etc., that are circulating through the bloodstream. Inside the brain glutamine may be converted into glutamic acid, another amino acid that helps sustain proper brain function; it also increases levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an amino acid that acts as a neurotransmitter in the body. L-glutamine supplements may improve mental function and have been used to treat epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, and senility. Glutamine is also an important source of energy for the nervous system. If the brain is not receiving enough glucose, it compensates by increasing glutamine metabolism for energy. Glutamine users often report more energy, less fatigue and better mood.
Glutamine promotes a healthy digestive tract by helping to balance acid/alkaline levels in the body. Glutamine from food can be directly absorbed into the cells of the small intestine, and thus may be helpful for people with digestive who have trouble absorbing nutrients. Some health professionals believe that glutamine supplements may benefit people with intestinal problems like ileitis and Crohn’s disease. Glutamine helps remove toxic ammonia from the liver—excess nitrogen in the liver attaches itself to glutamic acid to form glutamine rather than being converted into ammonia. Glutamine also protects the liver from the effects of alcohol and acetaminophen overdose.
Glutamine helps transport nitrogen to other parts of the body as well, the muscles in particular. By regulating levels of nitrogen and helping to replenish glycogen supplies in the muscles, glutamine helps prevent the muscle breakdown during particularly strenuous workouts. Many serious body builders swear by glutamine for preserving and building muscle mass. Glutamine is the most abundant single amino acid in both blood and muscle tissue; up to 60 percent of the amino acid content in skeletal muscle tissue is glutamine. Because this amino acid helps to build and maintain muscle, supplemental glutamine may be useful for dieters, bodybuilders, and anyone with chronic conditions that require the prolonged bed rest that can contribute to muscular deterioration, such as cancer or AIDS.
Glutamine promotes normal cell division throughout the body. It is key to the development of DNA and RNA, and to the formation of cells that function as part of the immune system, such as thymocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages. Without sufficient glutamine, the immune system would cease to function. For this reason glutamine is sometimes recommended for people who suffer from diseases linked to a malfunctioning immune system, such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic fatigue, scleroderma, and AIDS. Glutamine may also be useful to those recovering from surgery or acute injury—when the body is under stress it may release as much as one-third of the glutathione in muscles to provide extra fuel to the injury site, and supplementation may be necessary to prevent muscle cannibalization.
Glutamine is found in many foods, but it is easily destroyed by cooking. If eaten raw, spinach and parsley are good sources. Glutathione is available in capsules and powders, and is added to most amino acid complexes. It is also included in many powder drinks marketed as muscle enhancers.
Anyone with liver or kidney problems, Reye’s syndrome, or any type of disorder that can result in an accumulation of ammonia in the blood should not take glutamine, as it may aggravate these conditions.

 

The complete list of amino acids is on :
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Glutamic Acid aka Glutamate

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Glutamic acid, also called glutamate, is an excitatory neurotransmitter that increases the firing of neurons in the central nervous system. It is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord. It is converted into either glutamine or Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), two other amino acids that help pass messages to the brain.
Glutamic Acid is important in the metabolism of sugars and fats, and aids in the transportation of potassium into the spinal fluid and across blood-brain barrier. Although it does not pass the blood-brain barrier as readily as glutamine does, it is found at high levels in the blood and may infiltrate the brain in small amounts. The brain can use glutamicacid as fuel.
Glutamic acid helps to correct personality disorders and is useful in treating childhood behavioral disorders. It is used in the treatment of epilepsy, mental retardation, muscular dystrophy, ulcers, and hypoglycemic coma, a complication of insulin treatment for diabetes. It is a component of folate (folic acid), a B vitamin that helps the body break down amino acids. Because one of its salts is monosodium glutamate (MSG), glutamic acid should be avoided by anyone who is allergic to MSG.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid aka GABA

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-essential amino acid that helps promote normal brain function by helping to block stress-related messages from reaching receptor sites in the central nervous system. GABA helps reduce feelings of anxiousness, and may be helpful for treatment of disorders linked to emotional stress, such as reduced sex drive and hypertension.
GABA is manufactured in the body from another amino acid, glutamic acid. GABA essentially acts as a tranquilizer in the body, and its effects are comparable to prescription drugs such as Valium and other tranquilizers. Because GABA helps to subdue the firing of nerve cells in the brain, it may be useful for treatment of disorders thought to be linked to over stimulation of the brain’s motor centers, such as epilepsy and attention deficit disorder. Research indicates that it may also help treat alcoholism by reducing alcohol cravings, which have been shown to respond to treatment with the precursor of GABA, glutamic acid, as well.
Individuals with enlarged prostate glands may benefit from GABA supplementation, as this amino acid plays a key role in balancing and regulating levels of sex hormones in the body. Some studies indicate that GABA actually increases levels of human growth hormone (HGH) in the body, which can lead to an increase in muscle mass and decrease in overall body fat.
GABA is available in capsule and powder forms at health food stores and from online distributors. The usual dosage is 3 to 5 grams, and although some studies have used doses as high as 18 grams, you should proceed with caution when taking large doses of GABA. Too much GABA may actually increase feelings of anxiety, and has been reported to cause numbness, tingling, and shortness of breath. In addition, abnormal levels of GABA may also induce seizure activity in some individuals.

The complete list of amino acids is on :
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Cystine

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Cystine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that helps form healthy skin, hair, bones, and connective tissue. It is also required to make glutathione, one of the natural antioxidants that fight free-radical damage (glutathione detoxifies the liver).  Each molecule of cystine is made from two molecules of cysteine, another sulfur-containing amino acid that, as its name suggests, is very similar to cystine; in fact, cystine is generally regarded as the more stable form of cysteine, although both amino acids can be converted into the other as needed.

Cystine works closely with glutathione to remove toxins from the liver. In fact, cysteine is often used in emergency rooms to treat acetaminophen overdoses, which are known to cause liver damage. It also protects the liver and brain against toxins absorbed from alcohol and cigarette use, and may be effective in preventing hangovers.

There’s a lot of cystine in alpha-keratin, the protein that makes up the fingernails, skin, and hair. For this reason cysteine supplements are sometimes marketed as anti-aging products that claim to stimulate the formation of collagen and improve skin elasticity. Cysteine supplementation may also help speed the healing of burns and wounds, and improve joint flexibility in those with rheumatoid arthritis.

Because it promotes the production of the antioxidant glutathione, cysteine supplementation may be useful to those suffering from conditions that have been linked to free-radical oxidative damage, such as hardening of the arteries and cancer. It may also help treat emphysema, tuberculosis, and bronchitis—cysteine has been shown to help break down mucus in the respiratory tract.

Cystine is a nonessential amino acid, which means the body manufactures its own supply of this substance. However, foods such as eggs, meat, dairy products, and whole grains are also good sources of cystine.

Cysteine is more easily absorbed by the body than cystine, so most supplements contain cysteine rather than cystine. In addition, too much cystine in the body can cause cystinosis, a rare disease that can cause cystine crystals to form in the body and produce bladder or kidney stones. This side effect has not been associated with cysteine; however, as previously mentioned, cysteine is unstable, and is often converted to cystine in the body. To avoid the conversion of cysteine to potentially harmful amounts of cystine, it is advised that you take vitamin C supplements or consume citrus fruits along with cysteine supplements. Cystine cannot be used by the body without adequate amounts of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid, so you’ll want to make sure you get the right amount of these supplements as well. B vitamins are also needed to help the body get rid of homocysteine, a waste product that is formed when the body uses cysteine. Homocysteine has been linked to inflammation in the arteries that results in heart disease.

If you want to try cysteine supplements, try N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), which is made naturally from cysteine, and is better absorbed than other cysteine or cystine supplements.

The complete list of amino acids is on :
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